The Catawba Indian Nation want to build a $340 million casino and resort in Kings Mountain, N.C. which is 45 miles northwest of their reservation in Rock Hill. Theyve applied for federal permission to make the land a sort of annex to their reservation.
They may also need approval from North Carolinas governor and General Assembly but both are cool to the concept. So why not just build a casino on the tribes existing reservation just off Interstate 77?
Ask Gilbert Blue.
The Indian Room is where Blue one of the longest-serving Catawba chiefs in modern history invites guests to his home.
In the place of honor: a framed copy of the Catawba Indian Land Claims Settlement Act of 1993. The tribes current quest to build a casino in North Carolina ties back to this document and Blues tenure as chief, which ended in 2007 after 34 years.
When he was elected in the early 1970s, the Catawbas had dwindled to less than 2,000. Through a series of broken treaties with white settlers and the state of South Carolina, the tribes land had dwindled, too from some 144,000 acres in the 1700s down to a single square mile of dirt roads and rundown shacks.
The few Catawbas still living on the reservation were low-wage textile workers. They had no access to federal grants because they werent a federally recognized tribe.
So the Catawbas filed a lawsuit demanding compensation for ancestral lands that had been taken from them over the centuries. And at first, people scoffed. But as the lawsuit dragged on, it became hard to get clear title to buy or sell any of the disputed land.
Enter the congressman
For 28 years, John Spratt represented the 5th Congressional District of South Carolina which encompassed all of the 144,000 acres claimed by the Catawba Indian tribe.
Spratt has a framed document on his wall too: A map from 1781 showing the plot of land owned by his great-great-great-great-grandfather Thomas Spratt, who was one of the earliest white settlers to the region.
Depending on whos telling the story, Thomas Spratt was either a trusted adviser to the Catawbas or an opportunistic land broker. Either way he ended up with a big piece of Catawba land much of which remains in the Spratt family.
That tangled back story followed Spratt to Congress, where he leaned on every ally he had in Washington to get backing for a $50 million settlement that would put the lawsuit to rest.
What youre seeing today particularly on I-85 and Indian Land township down on Highway 521 and all of Rock Hill where the Galleria Mall is would not have happened without the settlement, says Spratt.
The Catawbas agreed to drop their land claims in exchange for $50 million in cash and federal recognition that would make them eligible for millions in grants each year. But, there was one thing Spratt couldnt get for them, because South Carolina officials simply said, No way.
We dont want any gaming in South Carolina as far as casinos, etcetera whether its Indian or not, says South Carolina State Sen. Wes Hayes.
The only way Hayes and his colleagues would approve the settlement was if the Catawbas agreed not to fall under the federal law that allows Indian tribes to operate Vegas-style casinos in states where gambling is prohibited.
Thats the law that let the Eastern Band of Cherokees open a casino near Asheville and use the proceeds to build a hospital, a park, a fire station and write annual checks of around $7,000 to tribal members. The Catawbas were reluctant to sign away the possibility of something like that . . . but they were torn.
Most of the Catawbas are Mormon they do not believe in or practice gambling, so that took a little bit of the steam out of their argument, says Spratt.
Caught in the middle
In fact, it was Chief Blues grandfather Samuel Taylor Blue who befriended a pair of missionaries from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the late 1800s. He later became chief and nearly the entire tribe converted.
By the time Chief Gilbert Blue was negotiating the land claim settlement, about half of the tribe was Mormon. And he was caught in the middle: not opposed to gaming rights for the tribe, but also not pushing as hard for them as a non-Mormon might have.
Ultimately, the Catawbas were promised the ability to have two high-dollar bingo halls and any other gambling allowed under state law.
Blue knew that federal recognition for the tribe would bring money for education, housing and health care. So, with strong backing from the tribe, he signed the agreement.
Soon the reservations roads were paved. The tribe built a headquarters and created dozens of tribal government jobs for Catawbas. Some $7.5 million of the settlement was divvied up by the tribe in payments of several thousand dollars per person.
But the tribes other economic ventures have not panned out.
The bingo hall in Rock Hill lasted about 10 years, but couldnt turn a profit. A restaurant deal in Myrtle Beach didnt work out either.
So Catawba leaders set their sights on the path to prosperity forged by tribes in other states: a casino.
But, in South Carolina, they signed away that prospect 20 years ago this month with the 1993 settlement. That is why the Catawba Nation is looking across the border to North Carolina.